Reseachers at Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR) have been riding around Rotterdam and Arnhem in the Netherlands on two trikes mapping and measuring the urban climate during four time intervals on a 24 hour day. The measuring was to study the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect that often causes heat stress.
The measurements on 6 August in Rotterdam showed that during day time the city centre was two degrees warmer on average than Zestienhoven(Rotterdam) airport, which is located outside the city. A striking observation was that the city park De Twee Heuvelen was 2.4 degrees cooler than Zestienhoven. This means that the differences in the afternoon in the city can rise to 4.4 degrees centigrade. During the late evening (22-24 hours), the city centre was more than 5 degrees warmer than Zestienhoven. The route near the national Green Heart (Doenkade) turned out to be even cooler (2 degrees C) than Zestienhoven. The difference in temperature between the city and countryside consequently amounted to more than 7 degrees during nocturnal hours.
In the late afternoon the felt air temperature – the air temperature perceived by the human body – was 28 degrees C at Zestienhoven, the temperature at the city centre of Rotterdam (in the sun and out of the wind) would feel more than 6 degrees higher – so well above 30° C. Surprisingly, similar effects were measured in the much smaller city of Arnhem.
For the measurements (before sunrise, midday, late afternoon, after sunset), days with maximum temperatures above 25° C were necessary. With the two cargo bikes with measurement equipment, the researchers cycled along two previously determined routes through a number of characteristic urban districts, such as an industrial area, an older residential area, a city park and the harbour area. The researchers plan to take more measurements later this year and in 2010.
SOURCE: Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR)
IMAGE: Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR)
The Ministry of Education suggests 30 million euros from the natural gas available for an initiative of the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University and Wageningen University together with Naturalis a center for biodiversity to form. With the money is a very large, joint collection consisting of 37 million plants, rocks, stuffed animals and fossils, which Dutch Center for Biodiversity (NCB) in the top 5 global state. Moreover, a joint laboratory for DNA barcoding with the Central Bureau Schimmel Cultures, with offices in Leiden and Utrecht.
Het ministerie van OCW stelt 30 miljoen euro uit de aardgasbaten beschikbaar voor een initiatief van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, Universiteit Leiden en Wageningen Universiteit die samen met Naturalis één centrum voor biodiversiteit gaan vormen. Met het geld wordt een zeer omvangrijke, gezamenlijke collectie gevormd van 37 miljoen planten, gesteenten, opgezette dieren en fossielen, waarmee het Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit (NCB) wereldwijd in de top 5 staat. Bovendien wordt een gezamenlijk laboratorium voor DNA-barcoding opgezet met het Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures, met vestigingen in Leiden en Utrecht.
SOURCE: Wageningen University, 03/08/09 VIA groeneruimte.nl (Netherlands)
Wallpaper.com reported on West 8’s new bridge
“Even though landscape design experts West8 might be known for their innovative larger scale public spaces and urban planning work, bridge design has also been on their agenda for a long time now; the firm has already designed over 100 bridges in their home country of The Netherlands, and internationally.”
SOURCE: Twist Bridge, Vlaardingen – Architecture – Wallpaper.com
World Landscape Architect Editor’s Note: When will landscape architecture override the term landscape design?